Wednesday, December 31, 2008

Exams Postponed due to Moharram.


Click on the above image to enlarge.
Postponement of Examinations Download

Friday, December 26, 2008

Post Graduate students USN for 2008 Batch

Post Graduate students USN for 2008 batch Download

Thursday, December 18, 2008

Detail of New Pattern of Question Paper for First Years.

VTU has also updated the new pattern model question papers which can be download from here.The new Semester pattern includes the following

Multiple Choice Questions – The exam paper will contain multiple answers per question in which one of the answer will be the right one.Each question will carry 1 legit mark.

4 questions per chapter – Four multiple choice questions will be chosen from every chapter which will have a easy level,difficult and skills questions included.

Lecture Notes for Computer Science Dept.

courtesy:KVGCE

Lecture Notes and other interesting study materials

  1. Computer Concepts and C Programming (06CCP13/ 06CCP23) by Mr. Yogeesha H C, Assistant Professor, KVGCE, Sullia.

    a. Class Notes on Computer Concepts
    last modified: 24-05-2007.
    including the chapters on Introduction to Computers, Interacting with computer, Processing data, Operating Systems, Networking and internet


    b. Question and Answers in C Programming
    last modified: 24-5-2007.
    includes the question and answers in C Programming from previous years question papers.

    c. Class Notes on C Language
    last modified: 23.10.2007.
    includes Algorithms and Flow charts, Introduction to C, Lexical issues, Operators and expressions and I/O functions.

    d. 06CCP13/13 - June 2008 Question paper Solved

    e. 06CCP16/26 - Computer Programming Lab Manual

  2. Lab Programs in ADA Lab (CSEL47)
  3. Java and CGI Programming by Yogeesha H C
    a. Introduction to Perl
    b. Servlet Introduction

    c. Servlet Tutorials
    d. PHP Manual
    e. About Java Technology

    f. Java & CGI Lab Manual
  4. Software Practice and Testing by Yogeesha H C
    a. Notes on Styles
  5. C# learning materials provided by Prof. Dinesh S, Lecturer - CS, KVG College of Engineering, Sullia
    a. Downloads\C# Notes by Prof Dinesh S\csharp.ppt

    b. Downloads\C# Notes by Prof Dinesh S\Dot NET Demystified Slides.pdf
    c. Downloads\C# Notes by Prof Dinesh S\introduction_slides.pdf
    d. Downloads\C# Notes by Prof Dinesh S\microsoft_june_presentation.ppt
    e.
    Downloads\C# Notes by Prof Dinesh S\WhatIsDotNet-1.pdf
  6. Lab programs - Data Structures lab (06CS37) provided by Prof. Dinesh S
  7. Lab programs - OOPS lab (06CSL47) provided by Prof. Dinesh S

Tuesday, December 16, 2008

CLARIFICATION REGARDING THE EXAM SCHEDULE

CLARIFICATION REGARDING THE EXAM SCHEDULE
It is notified in the news papers on 16th December 2008 stating that, the examinations of Visvesvaraya Technological University will be conducted as per schedule.


However, the Examinations on 27th December 2008 stands postponed and scheduled as per the notification No. VTU/Exam/2008-2009/7576 issued on 10th December 2008.

Sl. No.

Scheduled dates
Details of Exams Postponed
Postponed and rescheduled dates
01.
27th December 2008

All Postgraduate Papers i.e. MCA/M.Arch.
Wednesday, 31st December 2008
02.
All Undergraduate Papers i.e. B.E. / B. Tech./ B.Arch.
Monday, 19th January 2009

Monday, December 15, 2008

Model Question Paper:Constitution of India & Professional Ethics.

MODEL QUESTION PAPER FOR Seventh Semester B.E. Degree Examination (Common to all branches) Constitution of India & Professional Ethics.

Model Question Paper
Seventh Semester B.E. Degree Examination (Common to all branches)
Constitution of India & Professional Ethics.

Time: 3 hrs. Max. Marks: 100

Instructions to the Candidates:
1. Use OMR Sheet Supplied, and darken the bubble with black ballpoint pen only against your choice of correct answer for
each question.
2. Double marking for the same question is considered as invalid.
3. Answer all the questions.
4. No negative marking.
5. Scribbling, folding, damaging of OMR Sheet is to be strictly avoided and University is not responsible for the
consequences.


1. In which year, did Cripps Mission come to India?
a. 1935
b. 1945
c. 1949
d. 1942


2. Who was the chairman of Drafting Committee of Constitution of India?
a. Dr. Rajendra Prasad
b. Jawaharlal Nehru
c. Dr. B R Ambedkar
d. Saradar Vallabhabai patel


3. When did Indian Constitution come into force?
a. 1946
b. 1949
c. 1948
d. 1950


4. Who will appoint the Attorney General of India?
a. Prime Minister of India
b. Chief Justice of India
c. President of India
d. Law Minster of the union.


5. Who selected the first President of India?
a. Members of the Lok Sabha and the Raj Sabha
b. Members of the Lok Sabha, the Raj Sabha and Members of Legislative Assembly of all the states
c. Constituent Assembly
d. Members of the British Parliament.


6. Who will appoint the Chief Minister of a State?
a. Prime Minister of India
b. Governor of that state
c. Cabinet Minister of that state
d. Congress Working Committee.


7. Who will appoint the judge of the Supreme Court?
a. Chief Justice of India
b. President of India
c. Law of Minister of India
d. Central Government.


8. Who will appoint the cabinet Minister of a state?
a. Chief Minister of that state
b. Governor of that state
c. Members of the Legislative Assembly
d. Members of Legislative Assembly and Legislative Council.


9. What is the Minimum age to become the Vice- President of India?
a. 35
b. 45
c. 25
d. 30


10 By whom the Directive Principles of State Policy be amended?
a. Members of Lok Sabha
b. Members of Raj Sabha
c. Members of both Lok Sabha and Raj Sabha
d. Parliament, supported by more than fifty percent of states.


11. What is the remedy available for the breach of fundamental duties under the Constitution?
a. Filing writ Petition
b. Filing Criminal Complaint
c. Filing Civil Suit
d. No remedy


12 How many types of writs are there?
a. seven
b. three
c. five
d. six


13. What is the term of the President of India?
a. Four years
b. Three years
c. Five years
d. Six years


14 Who was the constitutional Advisor to the Constituent Assembly?
a. Dr. B R Ambedkar
b. JawaharLal Nehru
c. Dr. Rajendra Prasad
d. B.N .Rau


15 How many times was the Preamble of the Constitution amended?
a. Three times
b. Two times
c. One time
d. Not amended


16 What is the maximum percentage of jobs that can be reserved by a state for backward class people in the government jobs?
a. 75%
b. 65%
c. 50%
d. 60%


17 The rule of Equality before law is not applicable to
a. Prime Minister of India
b. Chief Justice of India
c. Governor of a state
d. Law minister of India


18 Writ of Certiorary is issued
a. When a person is illegally arrested
b. When a person is illegally detained
c. When a judicial authority acts in excess of Jurisdiction
d. When a search warrant is issued against a person


19 India has recognized
a. Only one religion as National Religion
b. Three religions as National Religions
c. Five religions as National Religions
d. No religion as National Religion


20. One of the aims of Engineering Ethics is to
a. Inspire engineers to aquire in depth knowledge in their field
b. Stimulate the moral imagination
c. Aquire new skills in Engineering, Testing and Research
d. Make Engineers self Confident in discharging their duties


21 Professional Ethics is
a. Set of standards adopted by Professionals
b. Set of rules passed by Professional bodies
c. Traditional rules observed since a long time
d. Set of rules relating to personal character of professionals


22 One of the ways of misusing the truth is
a. Failure to seek out the truth
b. Exaggerating the truth
c. Making confused statement
d. Making totally false statement


23 Engineers shall issue public statements only
a. In subjective Manner
b. In objective Manner
c. On their personal responsibility
d. Based on the reports sent by higher officers


24 A person is detained under the special law
a. When he has committed criminal offence
b. When he has committed civil wrong
c. When there is likely hood of committing offence against public
d. When there are chances of escaping from India


25. Once the National Emergency is proclaimed, it should be approved by the parliament within
a. 6 Months
b. 3 Months
c. 2 Months
d. 1 Month



26. The owner of the patent right will be having patent rights for
a. 100Years
b. 75 Years
c. 50 Years
d. 20Years


27. Legislative Council is
a. Dissolved after 6 Yrs
b. Dissolved after 5Yrs
c. Dissolved after 3Yrs
d. Not dissolved


28. It is not a kind of trade mark
a. Designs
b. Sounds
c. Symbols
d. Goodwill


29 When the National Emergency is declared, the following article is suspended
a. Art 12
b. Art 14
c. Art 16
d. Art 19


30 The Chief Election Commissioner is appointed by the
a. Prime minister of India
b. Planning Commission
c. President of India
d. Chief Justice of India


31 Under Advisory Jurisdiction, the Supreme Court gives it’s opinion to
a. The Prime Minister
b. The Law Minister
c. The President
d. The High Court


32 A High Court Judge retires at the age of
a. 65
b. 63
c. 60
d. 62


33 One of the qualifications to become the Judge of the Supreme Court is
a. Practice in a High Court for at least 9 Yrs
b. Served as judge of High Court for at least 3 yrs
c. Practice in District Court for at least 12 Yrs
d. In the opinion of the President, he must be a distinguished Jurist


34 Raj Sabha is
a. Dissolved once in three years
b. Dissolved once in five years
c. A Permanent body
d. Dissolved once in six years


35 The President of India
a. Can be prosecuted
b. Cannot be prosecuted
c. Can be prosecuted only in the case of Criminal Conspiracy
d. Can be prosecuted only if the Parliament permits.


36 Writ can be directly filed
a. In the magistrate Court
b. In the Court of Civil Judge
c. In District and Sessions Court
d. In the Supreme Court


37 Professional Ethics takes into account of
a. The personal character of engineers
b. The temperament of engineers
c. The religious bent of mind of engineers
d. The social back-ground of engineers


38 To amend the constitution to change the procedure of election of the President of India, the bill has to be passed
a. By Simple majority
b. By Special majority
c. By Special majority, ratified by more than half of the states
d. By Special majority and consented by Chief Justice India


39. Constitution empowers state governments to make special law for
a. Women and children
b. Workers working in the mines
c. Farmers
d. Unemployed youths


40 Right against exploitation prohibits
a. Lending money at high interest
b. Giving in marriage minor girls
c. Women working at night in factories
d. Traffic in human being


41 One of the restrictions of freedom of speech and expression is
a. Contempt of Court
b. Degrading the office of the president
c. Speading discontent among the citizens
d. Holding unlawful assembly


42 Ex- post-facto-law means
a. An out –dated law
b. An invalid law
c. Passing Criminal law with retrospective effect
d. A law applicable only during emergency


43 This in one of the grounds for classification
a. Religion
b. Social status
c. Taxation
d. Annual income


44 Maximum percentage of reservation in educational institution is
a. 75%
b. 68%
c. 50%
d. 65%


45 When a person is detained under a special law
a. He should be released within three months
b. He should be produced within three months before the magistrate
c. An Advisory Board must be constituted within three months
d. A charge sheet must be filed within three months in the proper court


46. A writ of habeas corpus is issued
a. When a person is arrested arbitrarily
b. When the lower Court violates the principles of natural justice
c. When a public authority fails to discharge his public duty
d. When the lower court acts in excess of its authority


47 Common Civil Code means
a. Common Civil procedure Code
b. Common Civil law applicable to all
c. Civil law applicable to common man
d. Civil law applicable to Hindus, Muslims and Christians in certain matters


48. Fundamental duty demands
a. To abide by the constitution
b. To work sincerely
c. To avoid corruption
d. To abide by moral rules


49 President of India can be removed by
a. Chief Justice of India
b. Passing a resolution by the union Cabinet
c. Passing a resolution in Lok Sabha by two- third majority
d. Impeachment


50. President rule is imposed in a state
a. When there is no clear majority
b. When the Legislative Assembly passes a resolution to that effect
c. When there is difference of opinion between the Governor and the Chief Minister
d. When the state government does not follow the direction given by the Prime Minister.


51 Preamble of Indian Constitution
a. Is part of the constitution
b. Is not part of the constitution
c. Was considered to be part of the constitution
d. Is additional part of the constitution


52 Engineering Ethics
a. Stimulates the moral imagination
b. Provides up-to-date Knowledge in the field of Engineering
c. Stimulates to conduct research
d. Stresses on Time Management


53 Socially and educationally backward class means
a. People belonging to low caste
b. Scheduled caste and scheduled tribe people
c. Economically and educationally backward class people
d. Uncultured and uneducated people


54. Jobs are reserved for SC and ST people
a. At the time of appointment
b. At the time of promotion
c. Both at the time of appoint and promotion
d. On the basis of their annual income


55 Right to life includes
a. Right to die
b. Right to contest for election
c. Right to make a will
d. Right to get education


56 Writ of Prohibition
a. Prohibits police from interfering in one’s private affairs
b. Prohibits a person to continue in a public post
c. Prohibits lower court exceeding its jurisdiction
d. Prohibits judicial and quasi judicial authority from taking an action


57 Vice-president of India is elected
a. By the Members of Lok Sabha
b. By the Members of Raj Sabha
c. By the legislative Members of all the states
d. By the members of Lok Sabha and Raj Sabha


58 Original jurisdiction of the supreme Court relates to
a. Civil suits directly filed in the Supreme Court
b. Criminal Complaints directly filed in the Supreme Court
c. Writs directly filed in the Supreme Court
d. Disputes between the Union & the States


59 One of the views on responsibility of Engineers is
a. They are strictly liable
b. They are absolutely reliable
c. They should do good works
d. They should take reasonable responsibility


60 One of the impediments to responsibility is
a. Interference by politicians
b. Interference by higher officers
c. Rampant corruption at higher level
d. Self deception


61 Professional autonomy means
a. Independent body controlling profession
b. Liberty in selecting the work
c. Liberty to express independent view
d. Exercising independent and objective judgment


62 This is not a ground to declare state emergency
a. No clear majority
b. Not complying with the direction give by central government
c. Disobeying the direction given by Supreme Court
d. Failure to maintain law and order in the state


63 This is not a Directive Principle of state policy
a. Organize village Panchayat
b. Provide free Legal Aid
c. Secure living wage
d. Secure just and efficient judiciary


64 This is not a fundamental duty
a. To abide by constitution
b. To protect and improve natural environment
c. To develop scientific temper
d. Not to indulge in corrupt practice


65 It is not the objective enshrined in the Preamble
a. Justice Social Economic and Political
b. Liberty of thought and expression
c. Equality of Status
d. Secure shelter and proper livelihood to all


66 This is not the test for valid classification
a. Intelligible differentia
b. Relation between classification and the object sought to be achieved by the state
c. Arbitrariness
d. Social and educational backwardness


67 This is not the ground to impose restriction on the right of freedom of speech and expression
a. National Security
b. Law and order
c. Contempt of court
d. Morality or decency


68 This is not the power of the Chief Minister
a. Formation of Government
b. Control over ministers
c. Chief advisor to the Governor
d. Control over state judiciary


69 The President of India is not having
a. Executive Power
b. Diplomatic Power
c. Legislative Power
d. Power to control judiciary


70 The Election Commission has no power to conduct
a. Election to parliament
b. Election to state legislature
c. Election to the office of the President
d. Election to the speaker of the Lok Sabha


71 This is not the aim of studying Engineering Ethics
a. Analysing concepts
b. Addressing unclarity
c. Engaging sense of responsibility
d. Procuring faultless results


72 This is not dishonesty in Engineering Research and Testings
a. Crimping
b. Cooking
c. Forging
d. Plagiarism


73 Dr Rajendra Prasad was chairman of
a. Drafting committee
b. Constituent Assembly
c. Raj Sabha
d. First planning Commission


74 Number of members in Election Commission including the chairman is
a. Seven
b. Nine
c. Three
d. Five


75 Legislate means
a. Form Government
b. Make Constitutional amendment
c. Make law
d. Put Administrative Machinary into action


76 Natural Justice means
a. Justice not based on enacted law
b. Justice according providence
c. Just ,fair and reasonable action
d. Justice which is not based on technical formalities


77 Tight Couple means
a. Binding two beams tightly
b. Erecting two pillars side by side
c. Process tightly coupled
d. Strong addhesive material


78 Forging means
a. Signing in the name of some other person
b. Strengthening material by special process
c. Inventing research data which are reported
d. Mixing material under high pressure


79 Amend means
a. Remove the difficulties
b. Make the meaning more clear
c. Make the object of the act more clear
d. Omit


80 Enact means
a. Single chapter
b. Single action
c. Pass a law
d. Rectify the mistakes , in the law


81 Special majority means
a. More than fifty percent
b. More than seventy five percent
c. More than two third majority
d. More than sixty six percent


82 Special leave means
a. Leave with salary
b. Leave without salary
c. Permission granted by the Supreme Court to appeal
d. Leave granted only to Supreme Court Judges before retirement


83 Respite means
a. Death due to strangulation
b. Death due to drowning
c. Awarding lesser punishment
d. Painless death


84 Violate means
a. Use Violence
b. Use force
c. Commit breach of law
d. Over-rule


85 Interpret means
a. Interrupting in the exercise of legal right
b. Passing a law by absolute majority
c. Ascertaining the meaning of a word
d. Amending a law to make it more effective


86 Right to privacy includes
a. Right to move freely through out the territory of India
b. Right to reside in any part of India
c. Right to practice any profession
d. Right to personal liberty


87 Minority may be
a. Linguistic or religious
b. Regional or national
c. Racial or regional

d. National or racial


88 The basic attitude towards responsibility is
a. Intentionally causing harm
b. Negligently causing harm
c. Minimalist
d. Recklessly causing harm


89 Conflict of interest may be
a. False
b. Potential
c. Created
d. Imaginary


90 The President of India is bound to follow the advice given by
a. The Prime minister of India
b. The Attorney general of India
c. The Chief Justice of India
d. The Council of ministers


91 This is not the function of the Lok Sabha
a. Legislative Function
b. Financial Function
c. Controlling the executive
d. Judicial function


92 Appellate Jurisdiction of the supreme court does not include
a. Appeals in civil cases
b. Appeals in Criminal cases
c. Special leave to appeal
d. Appeals against writs


93 One of the characteristics of profession is that
a. Usually it is having monopoly
b. It demands hard work
c. It is based on honesty
d. It is having tough competition


94 Ordinance can be promulgated by

a. Lok Sabha
b. President of India
c. Lok Sabha and Raj Sabha
d. Prime minister


95 This is not impediment to responsibility
a. Fear
b. Self deception
c. Ignorance
d. Self respect


96 The chief election Commissioner is appointed by
a. The Prime Minister
b. The President
c. The Chief Justice of the supreme court
d. The law minister of India


97 Freedom of press is included in
a. Right to carry on any occupation
b. Right to personal liberty
c. Right to freedom of speech and expression
d. Right to education


98 Expert Testimony means
a. Tested by expert engineer
b. Evidence give by a person having competent technical knowledge
c. Document drafted by a legal expert
d. Designed by expert engineer


99 Fraternity
a. Fatherly treatment
b. Spirit of brotherhood
c. Unity and integrity of the nation
d. Elimination of economic injustice


100 Who officiates in the absence of president of India
a. Prime Minister
b. Vice president
c. Speaker of Lok Sabha
d. Chief Justice of India

Third and Fourth Semester Syllabus.

 aireng.pdf               
auto.pdf
biomed.pdf
cc.pdf
chem.pdf
civil.pdf
cs.pdf
ct.pdf
ec.pdf
ee.pdf
ev.pdf
fn.pdf
iem.pdf
ifsci.pdf
inst.pdf
ip.pdf
manu.pdf
mech.pdf
med.pdf
min.pdf
pol.pdf
prin.pdf
silk.pdf
telec.pdf
tex.pdf
trans.pdf

Sunday, December 14, 2008

VTU awards Kalam with Doctrate.



BANGALORE: Former president Dr A P J Abdul Kalam, has proposed introduction of a six-month multi-disciplinary course at the Visvesvaraya Technological University (VTU) at the the under-graduate level. “Once students undergo such a course, they can confidently enter the job market,” he said.H e was talking at the Raj Bhavan on Friday after a degree presentation ceremony was held by the VTU.Dr Kalam recalled his days at the Madras Institute of Technology when he was a student and noted that he worked on projects that involved system design, integration and management. Addressing the principals of engineering colleges who were assembled, he said that students must leave VTU with knowledge. “Knowledge involves three things: creativity, righteousness and courage,” he added.Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research(JNCASR) professor Dr Roddam Narasimha asked the VTU to introduce an undergraduate programme in aeronautical engineering. “Since Bangalore is the centre of aeronautics development in India, there are growing opportunities left untapped in this field.” He asked VTU to follow the footsteps of Sir M Visvevaraya, who was instrumental in establishing the aeronautics course at the Indian Institute of Science(IISc).Dr Kalam and Dr Roddam Narasimha were conferred with the ‘Doctor of Science’ (Honoris Causa) degree by Governor and VTU Chancellor Rameshwar Thakur on the occasion.

Saturday, December 13, 2008

Ist Semester Model Question Paper

Ist Semester Model Question Paper

1) Computer Concepts and C- Programming Download

2) Engineering Chemistry (06CHE12/22) Download

3) Elements of civil engineering & engineering mechanics Download

4) Basic Electrical Engineering Download

5) Basic Electronics Download

6) Elements of Mechanical Engineering Download

7) Engineering Mathematics- I Download

8) ENGINEERING PHYSICS Download

Friday, December 12, 2008

Model papers for 4th Semesters

Below are links to model papers for CS/ISE

MODEL QUESTION PAPERS according to subject code-

Civil Sciences III/IV sem:(Common for Civil Engineering,Transportation Engineering, Environmental Engineeering)

Manufacturing Science and IEM

Wednesday, December 10, 2008

Exams Postponed as Reported previously.


The official confirmation is out. See the notice above.

Visvesvaraya Technological University
Belgaum – 590 014, Karnataka State, INDIA
Dr. S A Kori Phone : (0831) 2498136
Registrar (Evaluation) Fax : (0831) 2405464
Ref. No/VTU/Exam/2008-2009/7576 Date :10th Dec. 2008
1
NOTIFICATION
Sub: Postponement of Examinations – reg.
In view of the by elections to the Karnataka State Assembly, the Examinations
Scheduled on 27th December 2008 have been postponed and rescheduled on the
following dates:
Sl.
No.
Scheduled dates Details of Exams
Postponed
Postponed and
rescheduled dates
01. All Postgraduate Papers i.e. MCA/M.Arch. Wednesday, 31st December 2008
02. 27th December 2008 All Undergraduate Papers i.e. B.E. /B. Tech./ B.Arch. Monday, 19thJanuary 2009
The examinations scheduled on the above dates are postponed and
rescheduled to the dates mentioned against the courses.
The Principals of all the affiliated Engineering Colleges are hereby requested to
bring the contents of this notification to the notice of all the concerned.
By order,
Sd/-
REGISTRAR (EVALUATION)
To,
The Principals of all Engineering colleges.
Copy FWC's to:
1. Hon'ble Vice-Chancellor through the Sec. to VC, VTU Belgaum, for information.
2. The Registrar, VTU Belgaum, for information.
3. The Special Officers of VTU Regional Offices, for information & needful.
Sd/-
REGISTRAR (EVALUATION)

Tuesday, December 9, 2008

List of Ebooks by foreign authors.

Physics for Scientists and Engineers with Modern Physics (3rd Edition) Solution Manual only
by Douglas C. Giancoli
Download

Fundamentals of Electric Circuits, Second Edition (Solution Manual only)
by Charles Alexander
Download

Advanced Modern Engineering Mathematics 3rd Edition (Solution Manual)
by Glyn James
Download

Solution Manual for Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 8th Edition
by J. David Irwin
Download

Introduction to Solid State Physics (Solution Manual)
by Charles Kittel
Download

Solution Manual to The Econometrics of Financial Markets
by Petr Adamek
Download

Solution Manual-Digital signal Processing
by Mitra
Download

Mechanics of Materials ( Solution manual )
by James M. Gere
Download

Electric Circuits, 8th Edition Solution Manual Only
James W Nilsson, Susan Riedel
Download

Transport Phenomena (Solution Manual)
by R. Byron Bird
Download

Solutions Manual for Techniques of Problem Solving
by Luis Fernandez
Download

Chemical Reaction Engineering Handbook of Solved Problems
by Stanley M. Walas
Download

Physics for Scientists and Engineers Solution Manual
by Paul A. Tipler
Download

Derivatives Markets, 2nd Edition - Solutions Manual
by Robert L. McDonald
Download

Data & Computer Communications, 7th Edition [Solutions Manual only]
by William Stallings
Download

Introduction to Heat Transfer 4th Edition SOLUTION MANUAL
by Frank P. Incropera
Download

Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics Student Solutions Manual, 3rd Edition
by Bruce R. Munson
Download

Fundamentals of Thermodynamics SOLUTION MANUAL
by Richard E. Sonntag
Download

Thomas' Calculus (10th Edition) Solutions Manual
by George B. Thomas
Download

Analytical Mechanics Solutions Manual
by Grant R. Fowles
Download

Engineering Fluid Mechanics, 7th Edition - Student Solutions Manual
by Clayton T. Crowe
Download

Applied Strength of Materials (4th Edition) SOLUTION MANUAL
by Robert L. Mott
Download

solutions manual for Mechanics of Materials Sixth Edition
by R.C.Hibbeler
Download

SOLUTIONS MANUAL for THOMAS' CALCULUS, 11th Edition
by George B. Thomas
Download

Communications Systems
by Simon Haykin
Download

Modern Control Engineering, 3rd edition, 1996
by Katsuhiko Ogata
Download

Signals and Systems, 2nd Edition
by Alan V. Oppenheim, Alan S. Willsky
Download

Fundamentals of Thermodynamics SOLUTION MANUAL
by Richard E. Sonntag
Download Solutions Manual

Physics for Scientists and Engineers
by Raymond A. Serway and John W. Jewett
Download Solutions Manual

University physics 11th edition solution manual
by Young and Freedman
Download Solution Manual

Fundamentals of Physics, 7th Edition - Instructor's SOLUTIONS MANUAL
Resnick Halliday
Download

Physics For Scientists And Engineers 6E
By Serway And Jewett
Download Solutions Manual


Vector Mechanics for Engineers Statics, 7th Edition
By Russel Johnson
Download

Classical Dynamics of Particles and Systems, 5th ed
by Marion, Thornton
Download

Classical Mechanics Solution Manual
by Goldstein and Safko
Download

Microeconomic Analysis
by Hal R. Varian

Download Solution Manual


Microwave Engineering, 3rd Edition
by David M. Pozar
Book as well as Solution Manual is here:
Download Book as well as Solution Manual

Electronic Circuit Analysis and Design 2nd edition
by Donald A. Neamen
Download


Digital signal processing - A computer-based approach
by Sanjit K. Mitra
Download


Microwave and rf design of wireless systems
by Pozar
Download

Solution Automatic Control Systems 8Ed
by Kuo and Golnaraghi
Download

Control Systems Engineering
by Nise
Download Solution Manual

Antenna Theory
By Balanis
Download

Solutions Manual To Electric Circuits, 7th Edition
by Carl Nilsson
Download

Solution Manuals for Fundamentals of Quantum Mechanics For Solid State Electronics and Optics
by C. L. Tang
Download


Solution Manuals for Applied Quantum Mechanics
by A. F. J. Levi
Download

Solution Manuals for Advanced Dynamics
by Donald T. Greenwood
Download Solution Manual

Digital Design (3rd Edition)
by M. Morris Mano
Download Part-1

Download Part-2


High-Speed Digital System Design
A Handbook of Interconnect Theory and Design Practices
by Stephen H. Hall
Download

Solution Manuals for The Economics of Financial Markets
by Roy E. Bailey
Download

IBM WebSphere RFID Handbook A Solution Guide
by IBM Redbooks
Download


Electrical Machines, Drives and Power Systems Solutions Manual
by Theodore Wildi
Download Solutions Manual


Engineering Mechanics Dynamics SOLUTION MANUAL
by Russell C. Hibbeler
Download

Computer Organization and Design
The Hardware/Software Interface, 3rd edition SOLUTION MANUAL
by David A. Patterson
Download

Finite Element Method Volume 1
by O. C. Zienkiewicz
Download

RF Circuit Design Theory and Applications Solution Manual
by Reinhold Ludwig
Download


Applied Strength of Materials SOLUTION MANUAL
by Robert L. Mott
Download

Advanced Macroeconomics, Solutions Manual
by Romer
Download

APPLIED MATHEMATICS AND MODELLING FOR CHEMICAL ENGINEERS-8th Edition
Solution Manual
by Erwin Kreyszig
Download

Solution Manual for Numerical Solution of Partial Differential Equations: An Introduction
by K. W. Morton
Download

Engineering Mathematics, 4th Edition, Solution Manual
by NEWNES
Download Solution Manual

Advanced Engineering Mathematics, 9th Edition
by Erwin Kreyszig
Download

Instructor's Manual For Advanced Engineering Mathematics 9th Edition
by Erwin Kreyszig
Download

Electric Circuits (7th Edition)
by James W. Nilsson Susan Riedel
Solution Manual
Download

Signal Processing and Linear Systems - Solution Manual
By B.P. Lathi
Download

Fracture Mechanics Solution Manual
by Northam Anderson
Download
Password:doifh654dzf

Heat Transfer A Practical Approach. Solution Manual
by Yunus A. Cengel
Download Solution Manual

Heat Transfer A Practical Approach
by Yunus A. Cengel
Download

Introduction to Heat Transfer Solution's Manual
by peyman pourmoghaddam
Download

Fundamentals of Electric Circuits, Second Edition
by Charles Alexander, Matthew Sadiku
Download the Solution Manual

Chemical Reaction Engineering, 3rd Edition Solution Manual
by Octave Levenspiel
Download

Instructor's Solution Manual for Serway's & Jewett's Physics for Scientists and Engineers
by Ralph V. McGrew
Download

Introduction to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics
by J.M. Smith
Download Solution Manual

Introduction to Heat Transfer 4th Edition
by Frank P. Incropera
Download

Solution Manual for An Introduction to Numerical Analysis
by Endre Suli
Download

Solution Manual for Classical Mechanics
by R. Douglas Gregory
Download

Engineering Mechanics Dynamics (11th Edition)
by Russell C. Hibbeler
Download Solution Manual

Please refer to this link for complete set.

Monday, December 8, 2008

Lab Programs for Computer Sc. and Information Sc.

Analysis & design of Algorithms Lab * updated *

DataBase Management System Lab Programs

Data Structures Lab

OOP with C++ Lab

Computer Concepts & Programming Lab

CGI Introduction [PPT]

Perl CGI Lab Programs

PHP Lab Programs

PHP Power Pt. Presentation

Servlet PPT

Servlet Programs

Computer Graphics Lab Programs

System Software Lab Programs

NO OFFICIAL CIRCULAR YET ON DEC 27th EXAM.

There has been no official confirmation yet on December,27th Examination by VTU. There are rumours doing rounds like a circular has been put up in GIT,Belgaum. But nothing can be confirmed for sure. In the present situation its advisable to all our readers that kindly concentrate on there studies and don go by the rumours. If there would be any official confirmation then we would publish it here.Else December,27th Exam would go on as shecduled.All the best.
Official Confirmation out on VTU site.
Or this link: http://vtunews.blogspot.com/2008/12/exams-postponed-as-reported-previously.html

MBA 9th December 2008 exam postponed on the eve of Bakrid

MBA 9th December 2008 exam postponed on the eve of Bakrid and

rescheduled on Tuesday 23rd December 2008.

Saturday, December 6, 2008

Postponment of December 27th examination.

We can bring you an unconfirmed reports that the VTU externals scheduled to be held on December 27th is postponed with regards to the by-election(read the article below). The new date is been decided as Monday 19th,January,2009.This report would be confirmed as soon as possible.Please keep following this page for the confirmation.

OFFICIAL CONFIRMATION ON VTU WEBSITE.

BJP gears up for Dec 27 by-elections in Karnataka

Mon, Nov 24 01:26 PM

Bangalore, Nov 24 (PTI) Short of simple majority by three seats in the 224-member Karnataka assembly and surviving with the support of six independents, the first BJP government in the state is all geared up to win the seven bypolls scheduled to be held on December 27. The BJP, which has 110 members including the Speaker, sees the bypolls as an opportunity to regain majority in the House on its own.

BJP requires 113 for simple majority. Congress has 77 and JD(S) has 23 members in the House.

By-elections were due for eight seats, but polls would be held only for seven as an election petition was pending in the Karnataka High Court with regard to the Madhugiri seat. The bypolls were necessitated after the B S Yeddyurappa ministry in a calibrated exercise codenamed 'Operation Lotus' encouraged defections of MLAs from the opposition Congress and JD(S) ranks who resigned their membership.

The BJP has geared up for the by-elections, a day after the Election Commission announced the schedule in the state, and converted its two-day session called to discuss on development programmes with its legislators today at a hotel into a poll strategy evolving meeting. "We will announce candidates for the all seven seats in two days.

There are possibilities that party might change candidates in some of the constituencies which will go to bypoll," Chief Minister B S Yeddyurappa told reporters before presiding over the meeting. Welcoming the announcement of poll schedule, he exuded confidence that the party would win in all the seven seats.

However, Yeddyurappa said, the outcome of the election would not be a referendum on his government's performance. PTI.

Saturday, November 29, 2008

Wednesday, November 26, 2008

3 & 4 CRV results announced

3 & 4 semester CRV results of July 2008 examinations are announced Download.

Tuesday, November 25, 2008

Syllabus of 6th Semester Information Science: 2002 Scheme.

Old Scheme syllabus copy and Course-Info of ISE (2002 Scheme) is available.
You can download from following link:
Syllabus

Saturday, November 22, 2008

VTU reval fails to pass muster.

Courtesy:Bangalore Mirror.

VTU reval fails to pass muster

An engineering student at Visvesvaraya Technological University gets 68 marks in a subject but his mark card shows 17. The university then keeps the student, who has applied for revaluation, on tenterhooks for an agonising two months and forces him to shell out about Rs 1000, all for no fault of his!

The photo copy which says the student has secured 68 marks
Politicians and bureaucrats are our favourite whipping boys for all the real and imagined wrongs in society, so it comes as a shock to realise that universities are not so sacrosanct afterall. Their workings are often inscrutable and byzantine and students’ concerns are rarely their priority.

Ponder this: How much does it cost to get 18 sheets of paper photocopied? A maximum of Rs 18 assuming you pay Re 1 per copy. However, the Visvesvaraya Technological University (VTU) collects a fee of Rs 550 from students who seek photocopies of their answer scripts.Sadly, students have to pay up even when it is the university’s fault.

68 TURNS 17
On Sept 14, the VTU announced the results of fourth semester BE course. Prashanth (name changed for obvious reasons), who had fared well throughout his engineering course, found he had failed in one of the subjects.

He was shocked, even shattered, for he had never seen a fail under his name till this day. He promptly applied for a photocopy of his answer script. After around two months of nail-biting anxiety, the time VTU takes to photocopy 18 pages of your answer paper, the copy he got revealed 68 marks written clearly by the evaluator in
big bold letters.

How did 68 become 17 in the final result? Nobody knows. Whom to ask? Nobody knows. What happens to the Rs 550 (photocopy fees) plus Rs 450 (revaluation fees)? Again, nobody knows. And then, what about the mental agony the student had to undergo as a consequence of the wrong result?

MORE GLARING ERRORS
Another such case (scores of cases happen every year and go unreported), is of a BE fifth-semester student Sushanto K R (name changed), who got just 14 marks for a certain paper. Aghast, he applied for a photocopy and revaluation of his answer sheet. The photocopy showed 63 marks, but the revaluation saw only a four marks increase, which made it 18. Now his only option is to go in for a challenge-revaluation that costs Rs 5,000.

VARSITY HARDLY CARES
What’s happening to all the money? Why are the students repeatedly paying for errors that are clearly committed due to the university’s negligence? God knows. The university’s attitude seems to be: It doesn’t matter that the fault is solely and completely ours. Keep coughing up money if you want to see any justice done by us. Period.

There have been a lot of complaints about the VTU’s sins of omission and commission. There is hard evidence too of all this in the form of answer sheets and final mark cards, but all this has never made the University mend its ways.
Tomorrow, if we see a headline about a bright student committing suicide on seeing a fail certificate under his name, we will debate and discuss over our morning tea the cowardly acts of students nowadays. Sure the student is to blame, but should he be the only one?

DELAYED REIMBURSEMENT
An engineering college principal said, “The revaluation fee is Rs 450 and challenge-evaluation fee is Rs 5,000. If a student gets 16 or more marks after revaluation, he is entitled for 60 per cent refund. In case, if he wants to go for challenge-evaluation, then also he gets only 60 per cent money back. In any case, a student is set to lose 40 per cent of money for the officials’ mistake. Moreover, the student can get back the money only after a wait of a couple of months”.


Wednesday, November 19, 2008

Saturday, November 15, 2008

Engineering Physics [06PHY12].

Courtesy: Satheesh Kumar, SNMJCE, Bangalore.

Course Description

06PHY12: Engineering Physics provides students with a fundamental knowledge of physics, together with problem-solving skills, and an understanding of many fundamental concepts of physics required for engineers seeking innovative careers in today's technological age. The chapters covered in this course are Modern Physics, Quantum Mechanics, Electrical Conductivity in Metals, Dielectric & Magnetic Properties of Materials, Lasers, Superconductivity & Optical Fibers, Crystal Structure and Material Science.

Course Requirements

  • A pre-university level knowledge of physics, preferably of Halliday & Resnick standards.
  • A basic knowledge of calculus and trigonometry.
  • Interest to learn and enjoy life!

Syllabus

Engineering Physics/06PHY12 contains two parts and each part with 4 chapters. The detailed syllabus in .pdf format can be downloaded from here.

Part A

1. Modern Physics

2. Quantum Mechanics

3. Electrical Conductivity in Metals

4. Dielectric and Magnetic Properties of Materials

Part B

5. Lasers

6. Superconductivity and Optical Fibers

7. Crystal Structure

8. Material Science


Lecture Notes

The lecture notes will be made available here as and when the particular chapter is taught in the classroom. The notes are tailor-made for VTU syllabus and any student interested in exploring more is advised to consult the books by original authors. Such students may also meet me during their free time for learning more. You can download the .pdf files by clicking on the following links.

Part A

1. Modern Physics

2. Quantum Mechanics

3. Electrical Conductivity in Metals

4. Dielectric and Magnetic Properties of Materials

Part B

5. Lasers

6. Superconductivity and Optical Fibers

7. Crystal Structure

8. Material Science

Assignments

The assignments will be made available here as and when the particular chapter is taught in the classroom. The student should finish the assignment by 4.00PM of the deadline date. The students have the choice of submitting either in hard copy by person or can send soft-copy by e-mail.

Assignment 1
Assignment 2

Exams

There will be two internal tests each for 50 marks and one end-semester exam for 100 marks which will be conducted by VTU. The internal tests will be scaled to 25 marks. So the entire theory-part amounts to 125 marks. One internal practical exam for 25 marks and one end-semester practical exam for 50 marks which makes lab-part 75 marks. Hence, the total course will be for 200 marks.

The question papers of the internal testes along with the answers will be made available here as and when the particular test/exam is over. You can download the .pdf files by clicking on the following links.

The past VTU question papers are available here.
Scheme Academic Year Semester
Present Syllabus 2007-08 Winter Summer
2006-07 Winter Summer
Old Syllabus 2005-06 Winter Summer
2004-05 Winter Summer
2003-04 Winter Summer
2002-03 Winter Summer


Friday, November 14, 2008

B.E/B.Tech VI semester RV/RT Results of all regions announced

B.E/B.Tech VI semester RV/RT Results of all regions announced.Use sidebar to access the results.

Last Date for applying for Challenge Revaluation for B.E/B.Tech VI Semester is :19-November-2008

Last date for applying for Challenge revaluation for B.E/B.Tech II and IV semesters is on or before 08-November-2008

Monday, November 10, 2008

VTU ODD SEMESTER CALENDAR FOR 2008-2009.

Click on the image above to enlarge.

B.E/B.Tech VI semester Revaluation Results announced for Belgaum & Gulbarga regions.


B.E/B.Tech VI semester Revaluation Results announced for Belgaum & Gulbarga regions : EC,TE,BM,MZ,IT Results will be announced shortly.
Use the sidebar to access the results.

B.E/B.Tech V semester Revaluation results announced for all regions.

B.E/B.Tech V semester Revaluation results announced for all regions.
Use the sidebar to access the results.

Friday, November 7, 2008

B.E/B.Tech V semester Revaluation results announced for Belgaum, Gulbarga and Mysore regions

B.E/B.Tech V semester Revaluation results announced for Belgaum, Gulbarga and Mysore region. Result can be accesed from the sidebar.

B.E/B.Tech III and IV sem revaluation results of all regions announced

B.E/B.Tech III and IV sem reval results of all regions announced. Result can be seen using the sidebar.

Monday, November 3, 2008

B.E/B.Tech III sem all regions and IV sem Belgaum and Gulbarga region results announced.

B.E/B.Tech III sem all regions and IV sem Belgaum and Gulbarga region results announced. To check enter your USN No. in the sidebar.

Tuesday, October 21, 2008

B.Arch and MCA CRV results.

B.Arch and MCA Challenge Revaluation July 2008 Results of all semester announced.




Monday, October 20, 2008

VII and VIII Semester Challenge Revaluation Results Announced.

B.E 7,8 CRV Results-2008 download

VTU norm put diplomma student in a fix.

Courtesy: Times of India 20th October,2008.

Diploma students who got admitted to BE degree courses through lateral entry, are in a fix following the latest rule of VTU,Belgaum. Following an amendment to OB 6.2 rule of the curiculum, the duration of course has been reduced to 6 years from existing 8 years, according to Diploma Students Forum.
This amendment was brought on September 26th.Hence, diploma students who got admitted in 2003-2004 have to complete their B.E degree by 2008-09.
Most of the diploma students are unaware of this amendment so please spread the message.

Engineering students develop car that covers 180 km in 1 litre petrol

For those who are on a look out for a fuel efficient vehicle, here is a good news. A group of students have developed a car which can travel an amazing 180km in 1 litre of petrol.

A team of mechanical engineering students of RV College of Engineering, Bangalore, has designed and developed an aero-dynamic extremely light weight prototype with a low power 97 cc generator engine of two horse power (HP).

The car has an air-cooled engine with molten sized recumbent rear and two front wheels weighing 600 gms each, leader of the eight-member team, Nishant Sarawgi said in Guwahati on Monday.

At a power-point presentation of the prototype vehicle 'Project Garuda - RVCE Supermileage Car', Sarawgi, who hails from Guwahati, said the carburetor has better-burning efficiency and higher control over air and fuel mixture.

Friday, October 17, 2008

B.E/B.Tech I & II sem revaluation results announced for all regions

B.E/B.Tech I & II sem revaluation results announced for all regions.
Get the results on the sidebar.

Thursday, October 16, 2008

CIPE: Important questions.

Constitution of India & Professional Ethics

1.The deputy chairman of the concile of states
(a)Must be a member of lok sabha
(b)May be a member of rajya sabha
(c)Must be a member of raj sabha
(d)May be a person who is neither a member of lok sabha or raj sabha

2.This is not one of the powers of the Chief Minister
(a)Formation of the govt.
(b)Control over judiciary
(c)Advisor to the governor
(d)Control over lower judiciary

3.Chief justice of india is appointed by the
(a)Prime minister
(b)Council of ministers
(c)Parliament
(d)President

4.A judge of the supreme court holds office until he attains the age of
(a)65
(b)63
(c)60
(d)58

5.The vice-president of india may be
(a)Impeachment
(b)Lok sabha
(c)Raj sabha
(d)Raj sabha agreed by the lok sabha

6.The member of ministers in the central govt. is fixed by the
(a)Planning commission
(b)President
(c)Parliament
(d)Prime minister

7.Ordinance is promulgated by the
(a)Lok sabha
(b)Raj sabha
(c)Prime minister on the advice given by council of ministers
(d)President

8.Union advisory jurisdiction, the supreme court gives its opinion to
(a)Prime minister
(b)The law minister
(c)President
(d)High court

9.Raj sabha is
(a)Dissolved once in 3 years
(b)Dissolved once in 5 years
(c)A permanent body
(d)Dissolved once in 6 years

10.How many types of nerils are there?
(a)7
(b)3
(c)5
(d)6

11.The president of india is not having
(a)Executive power
(b)Diplomatic power
(c)Legislative power
(d)Power to control judiciary

12.Who officiates in the absence of president of india?
(a)Prime minister
(b)Vice president
(c)Speaker of lok sabha
(d)Chief justice of india

13.Speaker of the house of people is appointed by
(a)President
(b)Prime minister
(c)Union cabinet
(d)None of the above

14.Parliament consists of
(a)2 organs
(b)3 organs
(c)4 organs
(d)5 organs

15.The supreme commander of the defence force is
(a)Defence minister
(b)Prime minister
(c)President
(d)Chief of the army

16.Person to be appointed to the post of governor of a state must have completed the age of
(a)25
(b)30
(c)45
(d)None of the above

17.Governor shall nominate to the legislative council
(a)12 member s
(b)7 members
(c)5 members
(d)None of the above

18.State legislative assembly is prologued by
(a)Chief minister
(b)Governor
(c)Speaker of the assembly
(d)None of the above

19.The executive power of the state is rested in
(a)Governor
(b)State legislature
(c)Chief minister
(d)None of the above

20.Size of the ministry in a state is decided by the
(a)Chief minister
(b)Governor
(c)Members of legislative assembly
(d)None of the above

21.Cabinet minister of a state govt. can be removed by the
(a)Chief minister
(b)Governor
(c)Cabinet
(d)Chief minister with consent of cabinet

22.Min. age to become eligible for the office of governor is
(a)50
(b)35
(c)55
(d)No age limit is fixed

23.The tenure of member of legislative council is
(a)2 years
(b)3 years
(c)5 years
(d)6 years

24.Total members in the legislative council should not be less than
(a)250
(b)80
(c)20
(d)40

25.Legislative council is
(a)Dissolved after 6 years
(b)Dissolved after 5 years
(c)Dissolved after 3 years
(d)Not dissolved

26.High court judge retires at the age of
(a)65
(b)63
(c)60
(d)62

27.A minister in the state is appointed by the
(a)State cabinet
(b)Chief minister
(c)Governor
(d)Chief minister with the consent of state cabinet

28.Member to the legislative council are not elected from
(a)Local bodies
(b)University graduate
(c)University professors
(d)Secondary school teachers

29.Legislative assembly of a state shall not consist of more than
(a)250 members
(b)350 members
(c)450 members
(d)500 members

30.Amend means
(a)Remove the difficulties
(b)Making the meaning more clear
(c)Make the object of the act more clear
(d)Omit

31.While the proclamation of emergency is in operation, parliament may by law extend the duration of lok sabha at a time period not extending
(a)6 months
(b)1 year
(c)2 years
(d)3 years

32.This is one of the basis for classification
(a)Economic
(b)Geographical
(c)Intelligible differentia
(d)Social & economic backwardness

33.A proclamation of national emergency may be revoked by another proclamation at any time by the
(a)Lok sabha
(b)Raj sabha
(c)Both lok sabha & raj sabha
(d)President

34.When a state emergency is declared, all or any of the functions of the govt. are assumed by the
(a)Governor
(b)President
(c)Prime minister
(d)Union cabinet

35.To declare national emergency a decision must be taken by the
(a)Lok sabha
(b)Raj sabha
(c)Both lok sabha & raj sabha
(d)Cabinet

36.This is not a ground to declare national emergency
(a)War
(b)Serious internal disturbance
(c)Armed rebellion
(d)External aggression

37.Cuamy layer means
(a)Highly educated person
(b)Person holding high post
(c)Highly cultured person
(d)Person having higher income

38.Backward class can be classified into
(a)Moderately backward class
(b)More backward class
(c)Most backward class
(d)Highly backward class

39.What is the max. percentage of jobs that can be usuned by a state for backward class people in the govt. jobs?
(a)75
(b)65
(c)50
(d)60

40.Once the national emergency is proclaimed, it should be approved by the parliament within
(a)6 months
(b)3 months
(c)2 months
(d)1 month

41.When national emergency is declared the following article is suspended
(a)Article 12
(b)Article 14
(c)Article 16
(d)Article 19

42.Constitution empowers state govt. to make special law for
(a)Women & children
(b)Workers working in the mines
(c)Farmers
(d)Unemployed youth

43.This is one of the grounds for classification
(a)Religion
(b)Social status
(c)Taxation
(d)Annual income

44.Max. percentage of usunation in educational institution is
(a)75
(b)68
(c)50
(d)65
45.Minority may be
(a)Linguistic or religious
(b)Regional or national
(c)Racial or regional
(d)National or racial

46.To declare national emergency a decision must be taken by the
(a)Union cabinet
(b)Lok sabha
(c)Raj sabha
(d)Both lok sabha & raj sabha

47.When national emergency is declared, following article cannot be suspended
(a)Article 19
(b)Article 20
(c)Article 22
(d)Article 23

48.State emergency is declared by
(a)Chief minister
(b)Governor on the advice given by council of ministers
(c)President
(d)Lok sabha

49.Indian constitution envisages
(a)5 types of emergencies
(b)2 types of emergencies
(c)Only 1 type of emergency
(d)3 types of emergencies

50.Constitution protects the minorities
(a)Political rights
(b)Religious rights
(c)Culture
(d)Right to reservation in education institutions